Our Mission

…is to promote accounting reform aimed at positioning sustainability as the primary accounting measure of corporate performance in place of financial profitability.

Risk AccountingCall for Action

On March 2nd, The Good Governance Academy hosted Peter's Book Launch

The Good Governance Academy is a non-profit organisation that collaborates globally to share information on critical governance, sustainability, integrated reporting, and business science issues as a public good.


An Era of Unprecedented Change

The shift in focus from profitability to sustainability arises from the emergence of two categories of system-wide financial impact that accounting does not recognise.

First are the increased complexities inherent in the global risk landscape in which modern business is conducted. Boards of directors, CEOs and CFOs must now navigate their organisations through a veritable minefield of nonfinancial risks that have grown exponentially in recent decades.

Second are the environmental, social and governance (ESG) attributes of an organisation that mitigate nonfinancial risk and enhance shareholder value with respect to its people, innovation, business networks and relationships, environmental protection and the wellbeing of communities.

Boards, CEOs and CFOs are Vulnerable

Despite their materiality, there are no accounting and auditing standards applicable to nonfinancial risk exposures and ESG attributes. Their absence causes accounting reports to be of limited value, even misleading.

The nonfinancial risk management toolkit is appallingly weak. There is no generally accepted method of nonfinancial risk quantification thereby disenabling the analysis of accumulating nonfinancial exposures in the aggregate. Instead, operational and enterprise risk management typically relies on subjective, non-aggregatable, non-comparable, colour-coded (red/amber/green) risk self-assessments that are not useful for effective governance or accountants.

This leaves boards, CEOs and CFOs vulnerable to unexpected losses.

Profitability vs. Sustainability

In response to escalating nonfinancial risks that threaten financial, environmental and social wellbeing, governments, regulators and investors are pressing organisations to focus their corporate reporting on sustainability in place of today’s backward-looking, point-in-time focus on financial profitability.

Of particular concern is the absence of an accounting expression for the impacts of climate change and the pandemic as well as escalating exposures to supply chain, manufacturing, transaction processing, cyber, conduct, geopolitical, model, fraud, legal and compliance and many other nonfinancial risks.

Available now!

Click to buy from Amazon
(opens in new window)

scrabble, scrabble pieces, lettering, letters, wood, scrabble tiles, white background, quote, words, type, typography, design, layout, be the change, proactive, activism, make a difference, don't just sit there, make a change, global warming, black lives matter, personal responsibility, responsibility, with great power comes great responsibility,

The Need for Accounting Reform

The key to sustainability reporting is to value and account for nonfinancial risks and the mitigating effect of ESG attributes such that audited financial statements acquire a forward-looking dimension thereby transitioning from a purely backward-looking point-in-time profitability perspective to a combined backward- and forward-looking sustainability perspective.

This will allow boards, CEOs, CFOs, governments, investors and other stakeholders to conclude with greater certainty on an organisation’s sustainability with increased capacity to provide investors with reliably predictable returns.

Risk Accounting


RASB has collaborated with academia in the codification of a standardised and integrated nonfinancial risk management and accounting framework termed ‘Risk Accounting’ that identifies, quantifies, aggregates, values, reports and accounts for all forms of nonfinancial risks and ESG attributes.

For more information on risk accounting, visit https://risk-accounting.com.

Risk Accounting’s Critical Features


The tables and templates that comprise risk accounting are fully standardised to ensure the direct comparability of outputs within and between organisations.

Data quality:

A fundamental principle of risk accounting is that significant exposure to nonfinancial risk is triggered upon the transfer of products and services to external parties. Thus, risk accounting’s starting point is the controlled and audited daily amount of sales by product registered in official accounting ledgers.

Implementation lite:

Risk accounting is an extension of management (cost) accounting and, consequently, leverages existing accounting infrastructure and the same accounting data aggregation paths that produce financial statements.

Aggregation enabled:

Exposure to nonfinancial risk is calculated at the transaction level based on each product’s risk characteristics and the volume/value of daily new business booked. Thus, granular calculations of exposure to risk can be validly aggregated across the vertical and horizontal dimensions of an organisation.


Risk accounting removes the subjectivity inherent in risk & control self-assessments (RCSAs) by replacing the traffic light (red/amber/green) assessment metric with a numeric measurement metric. The status of risk mitigation is established through comparisons of the actual status of risk management and mitigation against industry consensus best practices and/or best practice benchmarks. Thus, the outputs of risk accounting can be independently audited as there is only one valid response to each tested best practice for which an audit trail is provided.


Aggregated exposures to nonfinancial risk by product are used as the basis to allocate the opportunity cost of risk capital. Thus, initiatives that successfully reduce exposure to risk are immediately reflected in reduced capital charges providing a profit incentive for risk mitigation. Organisations will have the capability to analyse exposure to nonfinancial risk in the aggregate and drill to the detail.

Product pricing enabled:

The opportunity cost of risk capital is allocated to products based on actual sales data. Thus, the cost of capital is available to be incorporated into each product’s unit cost.

RASB Board Members

Peter Hughes

Peter is Chairman of the Risk Accounting Standards Board. He is a chartered accountant and a visiting fellow and member of the advisory board of Durham University Business School’s Centre for Banking, Institutions and Development (CBID) research group. He was formerly a banker with JPMorgan Chase where he held senior positions in finance, operations, risk management, treasury & trading and audit.

Dr. Colin Lawrence

Colin is currently on the Board of OSTC Ltd where he chairs the Risk and Compliance Committee and he is additionally a member of the Audit Committee. He also sits on the academic advisory board of IHS Markit and PRMIA UK (Professional Risk Managers’ International Association). He is an honorary visiting professor of risk management at the UCL in the department of computer sciences and a senior advisor to Stratagem, a strategic consulting company, and to Basinghall Analytics.

Dennis Philip

Dennis is a Professor in Finance at the Durham University Business School and Director of its Centre for Banking, Institutions and Development (CBID) research group. He holds a PhD in Finance from Cass Business School. His research contributes to the understanding of the interactions between firm characteristics and financial markets. His research has been funded by financial companies, central banks and recently from the European Commission.

Mahmoud Marzouk

Mahmoud is a lecturer in accounting and finance at the University of Leicester School of Business and a member of the RASB Risk Accounting Standards Board (RASB). He holds a PhD and an MRes from the University of York. Mahmoud has extensive teaching and research experience in Egypt and the UK. In addition to his extensive teaching experience across a range of Accounting and Business modules at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels he also mentors and supervises undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD students.

Paul Costea

Paul is a seasoned marketing and sales professional with a diverse background covering advertising, media, business consulting, and over 20 years in enterprise software solutions, currently acting as RASB’s COO.

Paul is a law school graduate with a master of business administration from the Romanian Academy of Economic Studies and a Professional Diploma in Management from Open University UK.

RASB Intelligence

Operational Risk Metrics: Seeing Is Believing – GARP article

Operational Risk Metrics: Seeing Is Believing – GARP article

GARP.org article by Peter Hughes Tests conducted by researchers at the Durham University Business School, in collaboration with the Risk Accounting Standards Board (RASB) found that exposures to the operational risks of U.S. banks may have increased by as much as 60%...

read more
Where Next with Operational Risk? – GARP article

Where Next with Operational Risk? – GARP article

Observation and measurement issues pose continuing challenges As a researcher, I spend a good deal of time reading academic papers. One recently came into my hands written by an eminent group of academics and practitioners on the topic of systemic risk and financial...

read more
The Rise of a Complexitocracy – GARP Article

The Rise of a Complexitocracy – GARP Article

Can accounting help restore simplicity and comparability to financial and risk reporting? Published by Peter J. Hughes on GARP.org (Fri., Jly 31st, 2020) “Complexitocracy” is not in the dictionary. But maybe it should be. If it were, the definition would be something...

read more
Is accounting to blame for the pandemic? – PRMIA Article

Is accounting to blame for the pandemic? – PRMIA Article

by Peter j. Hughes, published by PRMIA in the July 2020 issue of "Intelligent Risk" Banks and airlines have something in common: they both have the potential to transform an isolated and sometimes freak event into a global economic crisis. In fact, any industry whose...

read more
Accounting’s Operational-Risk Missing Link – GARP Article

Accounting’s Operational-Risk Missing Link – GARP Article

A void that limits the influence of risk management and, at worst, increases the probability of unexpected losses. It is sound accounting practice to adjust accounting profits for expected future losses associated with the exposures to risk created when making those...

read more

Get in touch